In this article, we will ignore the usual "He Wrote" "My Response" arguments and just focus on the facts. First however, I should make clear that in all of Sam Shamoun's rebuttals to me, nowhere could he help and defend the original argument of the alleged story of Hafsa (R) running into the Holy Prophet Muhammad (S) with Mariyah (R). Instead, he rather argues from the view that Mariyah (R) is the Holy Prophet (S) slave. We never denied that there is evidence that Islamic sources say Mariyah (R) was a slave of the Prophet (S), however, I would like to apologize firstly because I made it look as if that evidence never mattered. It was not good for me to do that, and the Muslim thing to do was admit one was wrong, and I have no problem to admit infront of the masses that I made a mistake.
In this rebuttal, we will do something new. And that is show from both viewpoints, (Mariyah is a slave, or Mariyah is not a slave), and refute the anti-Islamists who argue that the Holy Prophet (S) had no control and that he "raped" (Astaghfirullah! May dust be thrown into the mouths of the enemies of Islam for saying such nasty things!) Mariyah.
We will prove new evidence in this article that was never provided in the older ones, as well as the previous sources cited to prove our point. Please note again, nowhere in Sam Shamoun's articles does he defend the story of Hafsa running into the Holy Prophet (S), rather he argues by just saying Mariyah was the Prophet (S) concubine. Allah SWT only knows why Sam Shamoun would have a problem with this seeing that even YHWH told the Jews to take the spoils for themselves (the slaves), and David (A) had many concubines. Thus, Sam Shamoun not only insulted his own God by arguing its wrong to have a slave (after throwing a lot of negative image on Mariyah), but he insulted the Prophets of God. So we thank Shamoun, for proving our point that the story in Ibn Sa'd's work cited by Ali Sina is false, since he couldn't prove otherwise. Now continuing with the article.
Evidence that says Mariyah (R) was a Slave woman:
Islam as we know promoted the status of a slave-woman. For example see:
The evidence which was provided in Sam Shamoun's articles that say Mariyah (R) is a slave woman are as follows:
(We will only be posting the major ones)
There is no doubt that Mariyah al-Qibtiyyah was the concubine of the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), and she bore him his son Ibraaheem. Can the title of "Mother of the Believers" be given to Mariyah al-Qibtiyyah or not?
Praise be to Allaah.
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) DID NOT MARRY MARIYAH AL-QIBTIYYAH, RATHER SHE WAS A CONCUBINE who was given to him by al-Muqawqis, the ruler of Egypt. That took place after the treaty of al-Hudaybiyah. Mariyah al-Qibtiyyah was a Christian, then she became Muslim (may Allaah be pleased with her).
Ibn Sa'd said:
The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) lodged her - meaning Mariyah al-Qibtiyyah and her sister - with Umm Sulaym bint Milhaan, and the Messenger of Allaah (S) entered upon them and told them about Islam. He took Mariyah AS A CONCUBINE and moved her to some property of his in al-?Awaali. and she became a good Muslim.
Al-Tabaqaat al-Kubra, 1/134-135
Ibn ?Abd al-Barr said:
Mariyah died during the caliphate of ?Umar ibn al-Khattaab, in Muharram of 16 AH. ?Umar gathered the people himself to attend her funeral, and he led the funeral prayer for her. She was buried in al-Baqee'.
Al-Isti'aab, 4/ 1912
Mariyah (may Allaah be pleased with her) WAS ONE OF THE PROPHET'S CONCUBINES, NOT ONE OF HIS WIVES. The Mothers of the Believers are the wives of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
"The Prophet is closer to the believers than their ownselves, and his wives are their (believers') mothers (as regards respect and marriage)"
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) had four concubines, ONE OF WHOM WAS MARIYAH.
Ibn al-Qayyim said:
Abu ?Ubaydah said: HE HAD FOUR (CONCUBINES): MARIYAH, who was the mother of his son Ibraaheem; Rayhaanah; another beautiful slave woman whom he acquired as a prisoner of war; and a slave woman who was given to him by Zaynab bint Jahsh.
Zaad al-Ma'aad, 1/114
For more information of the wives of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) - the Mothers of the Believers - please see the answer to question no. 47072
Maariya al-Qibtiyya was a slave female and was given as a gift to Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) by the Roman king. She bore the son of Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) who passed away during infancy. (Question 1071, Maariya al-Qibtiyyah; source)
(NOTE: It is indeed rather interesting that on the same page Sam Shamoun quotes, the author of the fatwa even refutes the baseless lie paraded by Shamoun and his crowd that Mariyah (R) is a sex slave by saying:
However, to regard Maariya al-Qibtiyyah as the sex slave of Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) as is presented by the west is a gross misrepresentation of the noble personality of Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam). Such statements are motivated by hatred and animosity. Kindly refer to the Polygamous Marriages http://www.jamiat.org.za/polygamy.html
and Allah Ta'ala Knows Best
Mufti Ebrahim Desai FATWA DEPT.
No explanation is given as to why this part of the Fatawa was cut off)
Was Mariya al-Qibtiyya ever a spouse?
No. Mariya al-Qibtiyya was never a spouse but rather a surriyya - with tashdid of the ra and its kasr - until the passing of the Prophet, upon him blessings and peace, as explicitly stated by al-Zubayr ibn Bakkar in his al-Muntakhab min Kitab Azwaj al-Nabi salla Allahu `alyhi wa-Sallam (Risala 1983 ed. p. 60):
?The Messenger of Allah passed away as Mariya was in his possession (as a slavewoman), whereupon she became free then observed, after her widowhood of him, three menstrual periods of home seclusion." Important notes:
1- The Prophet, upon him blessings and peace, made her wear hijab (contrary to the normal ruling for slaves).
2- At one time, because of one of his wives? complaint, he swore that he would stay away from Mariya then Allah Most High ordered him to cancel that oath without kaffara. (This may have been confused with a revocable divorce by some; in reality it confirms that a self-pronounced tahrim of mulk al-yamin is inconsequential. Imam Malik said: ?Haram is halal with regard to slavewomen.")
3- When Ibrahim, alyhi as-Salam, was born the Prophet said of her, upon him blessings and peace: ?Her son freed her." (This may have been interpreted as a cancellation of her slavehood tantamount to a declaration of marriage but is confirmed by the narrations to apply to her status after the passing of the Holy Prophet, upon him blessings and peace.)
4- When the Prophet died, upon him blessings and peace, she observed three menstrual periods of `idda in complete home seclusion (contrary to the normal ruling for slaves because at that time she became a freedwoman).
5- Our liege-lords Abu Bakr and `Umar in their caliphates spent lavishly on her (in resemblance of the duty to support the Mothers of the believers) until she died in Muharram of the year 16. `Umar gathered the people himself, she was buried in al-Baqi`, and he prayed over her. Allah be well-pleased with her.
6- The Prophet, upon him blessings and peace, did free and marry the surriyya Rayhana bint Zayd ibn `Amr of the Banu al-Nadir. This case may have been confused with that of Mariya. And Allah knows best. Sources:
- The Hafiz, Qadi of Makka, and genealogist al-Zubayr ibn Bakkar (172-256) in his al-Muntakhab min Kitab Azwaj al-Nabi salla Allahu `alyhi wa-Sallam.
God granted Rayhanah bt. Zayd of the Banu Qurayzah to his Messenger [as booty]. Mariyah the Copt was presented to the Messenger of God, given to him by al-Muqawqis, the ruler of Alexandria, and she gave birth to the Messenger of God's son Ibrahim. These were the Messenger's wives; six of them were from the Quraysh. (The History of Al-Tabari: The Last years of the Prophet, translated and annotated by Ismail K. Poonawala [State University of New York Press (SUNY), Albany 1990], Volume IX, p. 137)
An Account of the Messenger of God's Slave Concubines
They were Mariyah bt. Sham?un, the Copt, and Rayhanah bt. Zayd al-Quraziyyah who, it is said, was of the Banu al-Nadir. An account of them has been given above. (Ibid., p. 141)
The Messenger of God also had a eunuch called Mabur, who was presented to him by al-Muqawqis WITH TWO SLAVE GIRLS, ONE OF THEM WAS CALLED MARIYAH, WHOM HE TOOK AS A CONCUBINE, and the other [was called] Sirin, whom he gave to Hassan b. Thabit after Safwan b. al-Mu?attal had committed an offense against him. Sirin gave birth to a son called ?Abd al-Rahman b. Hassan. Al-Muqawqis had sent this eunuch with the two slave girls in order to escort them and guard them on their way [to Medina]. He presented them to the Messenger of God when they arrived. It is said that he was the one [with whom] Mariyah was accused of [wrongdoing], and that the Messenger of God sent ?Ali to kill him. When he saw ?Ali and what he intended to do with him, he uncovered himself until it became evident to ?Ali that he was completely castrated, not having anything left at all of what men [normally] have, so [Ali] refrained from killing him. (Ibid., p. 147)
Mariyah, the Prophet's CONCUBINE and the mother of his son, Ibrahim.
Al-Muqawqas, lord of Alexandria, gave her with her sister Sirin and other things as a present to the Prophet.
According to Ibn ?Umar [al-Waqidi] - Ya?qub b. Muhammad b. Abi Sa?sa?ah - ?Abdallah b. ?Abd al-Rahman b. Abi Sa?sa?ah: In the year 7/May 11, 628-April 30, 629, al-Muqawqas, lord of Alexandria, sent to the Prophet Mariyah, her sister Sirin, a thousand gold coins, twenty fine robes, his mule Duldul, and his donkey ?Ufayr, or Ya?fur. With them was Mariyah's brother, a very old eunuch called Mabur. Al-Muqawqas sent all this [to the Prophet] with Hatib b. Abi Balta?ah. The latter suggested to Mariyah that she embrace Islam and made her wish to do so; thus she and her sister were converted, whereas the eunuch adhered to his religion until he was [also] converted later in Medina, while the Prophet was [still] alive.
The Prophet admired Umm Ibrahim ["Mother of Ibrahim," Mariyah's title], who was fair-skinned and beautiful. He lodged her in al-?Aliyah, at the property nowadays called of Umm Ibrahim. He used to visit her there and ordered her to veil herself, [but] he had intercourse with her BY VIRTUE OF HER BEING HIS PROPERTY. (The History of Al-Tabari: Biographies of the Prophet's Companions and Their Successors, translated by Ella Landau-Tasseron [State University of New York Press (SUNY) Albany 1998], Volume XXXIX, pp. 193-194; bracketed statements ours)
845. That is, Mariyah was ordered to veil herself as did the Prophet's wives, BUT HE DID NOT MARRY HER . (Ibid., p. 194)
(1)The woman who came into his possession from among the slave-girls granted by Allah. According to this the Holy Prophet selected for himself Hadrat Raihanah from among the prisoners of war taken at the raid against the Banu Quraizah. Hadrat Juwairiyyah from among the prisoners of war taken at the raid against the Bani al-Mustaliq, Hadrat Safiyyah out of the prisoners captured at Khaiber, and Hadrat Mariah the Copt who was presented by Maqauqis of Egypt. Out of these he set three of them free and married them, but had conjugal relations with Mariah on the ground of her being his slave-girl. In her case THERE IS NO PROOF that the Holy Prophet set her free and married her. (Maududi, The Meaning of the Qur'an, English rendered by the Late Ch. Muhammad Akbar, edited by A.A. Kamal, M.A. [Islamic Publications (Pvt.) Ltd., Lahore Pakistan, 4th edition, August 2003], Volume IV, fn. 88, p. 124)
(NOTE: Maududi's position on this issue will be further more elaborated later on)
Narrated ?Ata: We presented ourselves along with Ibn ?Abbas at the funeral procession of Maimuna at a place called Sarif. Ibn ?Abbas said, "This is the wife of the Prophet so when you lift her bier, do not jerk it or shake it much, but walk smoothly because the Prophet had NINE WIVES and he used to observe the night turns with eight of them, AND FOR ONE OF THEM THERE WAS NO NIGHT TURN." (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 7, Book 62, Number 5)
(This is perhaps the strongest evidence to show Mariyah (R) was a handmaid. We will later on also argue from that position and refute the charge against the morals of the Holy Prophet (S)!)
Evidence that says Mariyah (R) is a Wife of the Holy Prophet (S):
"The books of sirah (the biography of the Prophet Muhammad) differ on the number of his wives (may Allah bless all). The main reason behind the differences in the number of his wives is - in most of the cases - due to the reliance on weak non-authentic hadiths.
However, the vast majority of Muslim scholars agreed that the wives of the prophet (pbuh) were:
1. Khadijah 2. `A'isha bint Abu Bakr 3. Sawda bint Zum`ah 4. Hafsa bint `Umar 5. Zaynab bint Khuzaymah 6. Um-Habibah bint Abu Sufyan 7. Um-Salamah 8. Zaynab bint Jahsh 9. Juwariyah bint al-Harith 10. Safiyah bint Hayi ibn Akhtab 11. Maymunah al-Hilaliyah 12. Mariya al-Qibtiya (Who was from Egypt.)
(May Allah be pleased with all of them). These are the names upon whom the scholars agreed."
"Reviewing the marriages of Prophet Muhammad individually one does not fail to find the actual reasons behind these marriages. They may be classified as follows:
1. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) came to the world as an ideal model for mankind, and he was in all aspects of his life. Marriage in particular is a striking illustration. He was the kindest, most loving and charitable husband. He had to undertake all stages of human experience and moral tests. He lived with one wife and with more than one, with the old and the young, with the widow and the divorcee, with the pleasant and the temperamental, and with the renowned and the humble. But, in all cases be was the epitome of kindness and consolation, and so designated to experience all the different aspects of human behavior and situations. This could not have been a physical pleasure; it was a moral trial as well as a human task, and a hard one too.
2. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) came to establish morality and assure every Muslim of security, protection, moral integrity and a decent life. His mission was put to the test in his life and it did not stay in the stationary form of theory. As usual, he took the hardest part and did his share in the most inconvenient manner. Wars and persecution burdened the Muslims with many widows, orphans and divorcees. They had to be protected and maintained by the surviving Muslim men. It was his practice to help these women become resettled by marriage to his Companions. The Companions rejected some women and so some of those women sought his personal patronage and protection. Realizing fully their conditions and sacrifices for the cause of Islam, he had to do something to relieve them. One course of relief was to take them as his own wives and accept the challenge of heavy liabilities. So he did so and maintained more than one wife at a time when it was no fun or easy course. He had to take part in the rehabilitation of those widows, orphans and divorcees because he could not ask his Companions to do things that he himself was not prepared to do or participate in. These women were trusts of the Muslims and they had to be looked after jointly. What he did, then, was his share of responsibility, and as always his share was the largest and heaviest. That is why he had more than one wife and more than any of his Companions.
3. There were many prisoners of war captured by the Muslims who were entitled to security and protection. They were not killed or denied their rights: human or physical. On the contrary, they were helped to settle down through legal marriages to Muslims instead of being taken as concubines and common mistresses. That also was another moral burden on the Muslims, which had to be shouldered jointly as a common responsibility. Here, again, Muhammad carried his share and took some responsibilities by marrying two of those captives.
4. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) contracted some of his marriages for sociopolitical reasons. His principal concern was the future of Islam. He was interested in strengthening the Muslims by all bonds. That is why he married the young daughter of Abu Bakr, his First Successor, and the daughter of `Umar, his Second Successor. It was by his marriage to Juwayriyyah that he gained the support for Islam of the whole clan of Bani Al-Mustaliq and their allied tribes. It was through marriage to Safiyyah that he neutralized a great section of the hostile Jews of Arabia. By accepting Mariyah, the Copt from Egypt, as his wife, he formed a political alliance with a king of great magnitude. It was also a gesture of friendship with a neighboring king that Muhammad married Zaynab who was presented to him by the Negus of Abyssinia in whose territory the early Muslims found safe refuge.
5. By contracting most of these marriages, the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) meant to eliminate the caste or class system, racial and national pride and superiority, and religious prejudices. He married some of the humblest and poorest women. There was his marriage to Mariyah from Egypt, a Jewish woman of a different religion and race, and a Negro girl from Abyssinia. He was not satisfied with merely teaching brotherhood and equality: actions speak louder than words. 6. Some of the Prophet's marriages were for legislative reasons and to abolish certain corrupt traditions. Such was his marriage to Zaynab, divorcee of the freed slave Zayd. Before Islam, the Arabs did not allow divorcees to remarry. Zayd was adopted by the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) and called his son as was the custom among the Arabs before Islam. But Islam abrogated this custom and disapproved of its practice. Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) was the first man to express this disapproval in a practical way. So he married the divorcee of his "adopted" son to show that adoption does not really make the adopted child a real son of the adopting father and also to show that marriage is lawful for divorcees. Incidentally, this very Zaynab was Muhammad's cousin, and had been offered to him in marriage before she married Zayd. He refused her then, but after she was divorced he accepted her for the two legislative purposes: the lawful marriage of divorcees and the real status of adopted children. The story of this Zaynab has been associated in some minds with ridiculous fabrications regarding the moral integrity of Muhammad. These vicious fabrications are not even worth considering here (see Qur'an, 33: 36, 37, 40).
These are the circumstances accompanying the Prophet's marriages. For the Muslims there is no doubt whatsoever that Muhammad had the highest standards of morality and was the perfect model for mankind under all circumstances. To non-Muslims we appeal for a serious discussion of the matter. Then, they may be able to reach sound conclusions."
(Source: Islam In Focus by Hammudah Abdalati p. 177-178)
" Notwithstanding all that, the Potiphar of Egypt did not embrace Islam. Of the two girls sent by him, one was Mariya Qibtiya, who was married to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), and the other Sirin , who was married to Hasan; the mula was named Duldul, frequently mentioned in books on traditions. In the battle of Hunain, the Prophet ( peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was on the back of this very animal. Tabari says that Mariya was Qibtiya and Sirin were real sisters, and through the teachings of Hatib Ibn Abi Balta'a, who had been sent as a messenger to the Potiphar of Egypt, both had embraced Islam before reaching the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). What one has to note here is that these ladies were not slave girls and that they had already accepted Islam. We should hence conclude that Mariya Qibtiya entered the Prophet's household as a duly wedded wife, and not as a slave girl."
(Source: Sirat-Un-Nabi by Allama Shibli Nu'Mani rendered into English by M. Tayyib Bakhsh Budayuni p. 153 Vol. II, Kazi Publications Lahore Pakistan)
" To Muhammad Ibn 'Abdullah from Muqaudis, the chief of Qibt. Peace to you. I have read your letter and have noted the contents. I knew this much that a prophet was to come. But I had expected him to appear in Syria. I have extended an honourable welcome to your messenger and am sending two girls who are higly respected among the Qibtis (Egyptians) and I offer as a present some cloth and a mule to ride on."
" We have translated the word "Jariyah" in the original sense meaning girl. In Arabic it may be used for a slave girl as well. Historians have on this account declarled Mariya to have been a slave girl. But the words used by the Potiphar about these girls are ' Who are higly respected among the Qibtis or Egyptians". These are not the words that may possibly be applied to slave girls."
" The Author discusses the report about Mariyah Qibtiyah mainly on the basis of weak reports. As to circumstantial evidence, he only points out that it is unthinkable in the case of a character so superbly moral and modest as of the Prophet. But it may also be pointed out that the holy wives are said to begin their protest against Mariyah some two years after her coming over to the Prophet, which makes the whole story extremely doubtful. Again that Mariyah has been living as a slave-girl, is higly improbably as was residing away from the Mosque on the outskirts of the city and could not 'therefore, render any domestic service to the Prophet or any of the other wives. The situation of her residence also rules out the probability of Hafsa breaking into her privacy. Moreover, the 'Allamah has already proved that Mariyah Qibtiyah was not a slave-girl, but a duly wedded wife of the Prophet and that she came of a respectable family of the Egyptians. To call her a slave-girl is in itself a distortion of facts- Translator"
(Source: Ibid Vol.II, p.233-234, Footnote#2)
"This was revealed in A.H. 7. After that the Prophet did not marry again except the handmaiden Mary the Copt, who was sent as a present by the Christian Muqauqas of Egypt. She became the mother of Ibrahim, who died in his infancy.
(Source: The Quran: Text translation and Commentary by Abdullah Yusuf Ali, Footnote#3754)
" 'Amr bin Hawairith has reported in Sahih Bukhari:
The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) did not leave anything at his death, neither dirhams nor dinarsnor a servant or a maidservant nor anything except his white mule, arms and land which he gave in charity"
(Source: Sirat Un Nabi by Syed Sulaiman Nadvi rendered into English by Mohd. Saeed Siddiqui, Vol.III, p.120, Kitab Bhavan, New Delhi)
One should ask, that if the Prophet (S) left no servant or maidservant, then how can Mariyah (R) be his slave? In Islam the slave would be freed upon the master's death, yet this hadith clearly denies any slave was even left by the Holy Prophet (S).
قال ابن خزيمة : تفرد بذلكمعاذ بن هشام عن أبيه ورواه سعيد بن أبي عروبة وغيره عن قتادة فقالوا " تسع نسوة " . انتهى . وقد أشار البخاري إلى رواية سعيد بن أبي عروبة فعلقها هنا ووصلها بعداثني عشر بابا بلفظ " كان يطوف على نسائه في الليلة الواحدة وله يومئذ تسع نسوة " وقد جمع ابن حبان في صحيحه بين الروايتين بأن حمل ذلك على حالتين لكنه وهم في قوله " أن الأولى كانت في أول قدومه المدينة حيث كان تحته تسع نسوة والحالة الثانية فيآخر الأمر حيث اجتمع عنده إحدى عشرة امرأة " وموضع الوهم منه أنه صلى الله عليهوسلم لما قدم المدينة لم يكن تحته امرأة سوى سودة ثم دخل على عائشة بالمدينة ثمتزوج أم سلمة وحفصة وزينب بنت خزيمة في السنة الثالثة والرابعة ثم تزوج زينب بنتجحش في الخامسة ثم جويرية في السادسة ثم صفية وأم حبيبة وميمونة في السابعة وهؤلاءجميع من دخل بهن من الزوجات بعد الهجرة على المشهور واختلف في ريحانة وكانت من سبيبني قريظة فجزم ابن إسحاق بأنه عرض عليها أن يتزوجها ويضرب عليها الحجاب فاختارتالبقاء في ملكه والأكثر على أنها ماتت قبله في سنة عشر وكذا ماتت زينب بنت خزيمةبعد دخولها عليه بقليل قال ابن عبد البر : مكثت عنده شهرين أو ثلاثة . فعلى هذا لميجتمع عنده من الزوجات أكثر من تسع مع أن سودة كانت وهبت يومها لعائشة كما سيأتي فيمكانه فرجحت رواية سعيد. لكن تحمل رواية هشام على أنه ضم مارية وريحانةإليهن وأطلق عليهن لفظ " نسائه " تغليبا . وقد سرد الدمياطي - في السيرةالتي جمعها - من اطلع عليه من أزواجه ممن دخل بها أو عقد عليها فقط أو طلقها قبلالدخول أو خطبها ولم يعقد عليها فبلغت ثلاثين وفي المختارة من وجه آخر عن أنس " تزوح خمس عشرة : دخل منهن بإحدى عشرة ومات عن تسع " . وسرد أسماءهن أيضا أبو الفتحاليعمري ثم مغلطاي فزدن على العدد الذي ذكره الدمياطي وأنكر ابن القيم ذلك . والحقأن الكثرة المذكورة محمولة على اختلاف في بعض الأسماء وبمقتضى ذلك تنقص العدة . والله أعلم
Bukhari has pointed to a narration of Saeed bin Abi Aruba, and related it here and attached it to the twelfth chapter and narrated it in these words:
"He used to go around to his nisaana [females; women], and in those days he had nine nisaana" Ibn Habana has collected among the sahih, between two narrations, that it conveys two conditions: But that was because of his saying, "the first was upon his arrival in medina where under him were nine niswas, and the second condition was at the other time when he had collected under him eleven women" the doubt in it is that when he came to medina, he did not have under him any other women except Sauda. Then he came upon Aisha, then he married Umm Salima, and Hafsa, and Zainab d/o Hazima, in the year third and fourth (AH). Then he married Zainab d/o Jahash in the fifth and Javeria in the 6th, then Safia, Umm Habiba and Maimoona in the seventh. And these were all the women he married after the hijira that is known. He differed about Rehana. She was from Sabi bin Quraiza. Ibn Ishaaq decided that he proposed to marry her and imposed hijaab upon her, and she chose to stay in his posession, and most probably she died before him in the year 10 AH. Similarly, zainab bin khazima died a little while after he married her. Ibn Abdul Barr says that she stayed with him two or three months. Until that he had not gathered under him more than nine women. Besides, Sauda had gifted her day to Aisha, when he would come home.
Then the narration of Saeen returns : But the narration of Ibn Hasham carries the possibility that he joined maria and rehana together and applied upon them the term "nisaana", most probably. Dhumyaatee had enumerated in his seerat he gathered: someone informed him that the number of women whom he SAW, married, or just did nikah with, or divorced after nikah before he married them, or proposed for them but then did not do nikah with them reached thirty. [The Women] from among them, says another source, Anas, " there were fifteen, and he married eleven of them." Abu Al fatah Al Yamaree also enumerated the names of the women; then he mistakenly added to the number that Dhumyaatee had mentioned. But Ibn Qayyim disagrees with that. He adds the names of most of the possible women, but differed in some of the names.
(Source: bold and underlined emphasis ours, translated by Dr. Munir Munshey)
This is Ibn Hajar's, the famous Hadeeth scholar (May Allah Almighty always be pleased with him...Ameen!) commentary on hadiths in Bukhari which say the Prophet (S) had nine wives.
In Islam, if a slave reverts to Islam, he or she is automatically freed. We know this because it is reported:
Mu'awiya b. al-Hakam said: While I was praying with the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him), a man in the company sneezed. I said: Allah have mercy on you ! The people stared at me with disapproving looks, so I said: Woe be upon me, why is it that you stare at me ? They began to strike their hands on their thighs, and when I saw them urging me to observe silence (I became angry) but I said nothing. When the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) had said the prayer (and I declare that neither before him nor after him have I seen a leader who gave better instruction than he for whom I would give my father and mother as ransom).I swear that he did not scold, beat or revile me but said: Talking to persons is not fitting during the prayer, for it consists of glorifying Allah, declaring his Greatness. and recitation of the Qur'an or words to that effect. I said: Messenger of Allah. I was till recently a pagan, but Allah has brought Islam to us; among us there are men who have recourse to Kahins. He said, Do not have recourse to them. I said. There are men who take omens. That is something which they find in their breasts, but let it not turn their way (from freedom of action).I said: Among us there are men who draw lines. He said: There was a prophet who drew lines, so if they do it as they did, that is allowable.I had a maid-servant who tended goats by the side of Uhud and Jawwaniya. One day I happened to pass that way and found that a wolf had carried a goat from her flock. I am after all a man from the posterity of Adam. I felt sorry as they (human beings) feel sorry. So I slapped her. I came to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) and felt (this act of mine) as something grievous I said: Messenger of Allah, should I not grant her freedom? He (the Holy Prophet) said: Bring her to me. So I brought her to him. He said to her: Where is Allah? She said: He is in the heaven. He said: Who am I? She said: Thou art the Messenger of Allah. He said: Grant her freedom, she is a believing woman.
Allama Shibli Nu'Mani even says:
"Notwithstanding all that, the Potiphar of Egypt did not embrace Islam. Of the two girls sent by him, one was Mariya Qibtiya, who was married to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), and the other Sirin , who was married to Hasan; the mula was named Duldul, frequently mentioned in books on traditions. In the battle of Hunain, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was on the back of this very animal. Tabari says that Mariya was Qibtiya and Sirin were real sisters, and through the teachings of Hatib Ibn Abi Balta'a, who had been sent as a messenger to the Potiphar of Egypt, both had embraced Islam before reaching the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). What one has to note here is that these ladies were not slave girls and that they had already accepted Islam. We should hence conclude that Mariya Qibtiya entered the Prophet's household as a duly wedded wife, and not as a slave girl."
(Source: Sirat-Un-Nabi by Allama Shibli Nu'Mani rendered into English by M. Tayyib Bakhsh Budayuni p. 253, Vol. II Kazi Publications Lahore, Second Edition)
Many Muslim sources say that Muhammad later freed and married Maria, but it is not clear if this is historical fact or historical apology. Some Muslim traditions claim that Muhammad offered to free Maria, but that she chose to remain a slave. To further complicate matters, slaves were to be automatically freed upon conversion to Islam, so it is not clear why Maria would have to be explicitly freed if she had already converted. (Source:as accessed on 16 March 2006; bold and underline emphasis ours)
Finally, some proof from the Life of the Holy Prophet (S):
" It would be in the fitness of things to say a few words about the magnanious treatment that was accorded to the prisoners of war by Muhammad (peace be upon him) and his companions. This noble attitude which they showed can be fully appreciated if we review it in the context of the circumstances which led to the war. The Prophet and his companions had endured for full fifteen years unspeakable insults and injuries at the hands of the Quraysh of Mecca so much so that they were obliged to bid goodbye to their native place and seek shelter into a far-off place. The Meccans who were thirsty for their blood did not allow them to lead a life of peace even in their new abodes. They fell upon them with all their forces in order to exterminate them root and branch. Fate, however, decided otherwise and they were defeated by a small army of the Muslims. Amidgst such feelings of bitterness the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) remained calm and self-possessed. No atrocity was perpetrated upon the prisoners. Out of the seventy-two captives only two were executed, viz., al-Nadir b. al-Harith and Uqbah b. Abi Mu'ayt who were notorious for their unrelenting hostility towards the Muslims. The rest of the captives were treated with utmost kindness and consideration. "Blessings on the men of Medina," said one of these in later days, "they gave us wheaten bread to eat when there was little of it, contenting themselves with dates." It is not surprising, therefore, that some of the captives, yielding to these influences, embraced Islam and were therefore immediately set free. The rest were kept for ransom. But this was long before Quraysh could humble themselves to visit Medina for the purpose. The spell of kindly treatment was thus prolonged and left a favourable impression on the minds of those even who did not at once go over to Islam.
The ransom of each prisoner varied with his financial position, ranging from one thousand dirhams to four thousand. The poor who could not afford to pay were set f ree without any compensation. Those who could read and write were given the charge of small children. Each one of them had to teach ten of their wards and when they became proficient in reading and writing, their instructor was granted liberty. This condition of securing freedom throws a good deal of light on the value which Islam attaches to learning."
(Source: The Life of Muhammad PBUH by Abdul Hameed Siddiqui, p.185-186, Islamic Publications LTD.)
Thus, it is indeed doubtful that Mariyah (R) remained a slave, and if she did (theoretically speaking), it was her own choice.
Mariyah (R) just like the other Mother of Believers was told to cover up. We know that the Mother of Believers did this because:
Anas (Allah be pleased with him) reported: I was sitting behind Abu Talha on the Day of Khaibar and my feet touched the foot of Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him), and we came (to the people of Khaibar) when the sun had risen and they had driven out their cattle, and had themselves come out with their axes, large baskets and hatchets, and they said: (Here come) Muhammad and the army. Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Khaibar is ruined.Verily when we get down in the valley of a people, evil is the morning of the warned ones (al-Qur'an, xxxvii. 177).Allah, the Majestic and the Glorious, defeated them (the inhabitants of Khaibar), and there fell to the lot of Dihya a beautiful girl, and Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) got her in exchange of seven heads, and then entrusted her to Umm Sulaim so that she might embellish her and prepare her (for marriage) with him. He (the narrator) said: He had been under the impression that he had said that so that she might spend her period of 'Iddah in her (Umm Sulaim's) house. (The woman) was Safiyya daughter of Huyayy.Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) arranged the wedding feast consisting of dates, cheese, and refined butter, and pits were dug and tiers were set in them dining cloths, and there was brought cheese and refined butter, and these were placed there. And the people ate to their fill, and they said: We do not know whether he (the Holy Prophet) had married her (as a free woman), or as a slave woman. They said: If he (the Holy Prophet) would make her wear the veil, then she would be a (free married) woman, and if he would not make her wear the veil, then she should be a slave woman. When he intended to ride, he made her wear the veil and she sat on the hind part of the camel; so they came to know that he had married her. As they approached Medina, Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) drove (his ride) quickly and so we did.'Adba' (the name of Allah's Apostle's camel) stumbled and Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) fell down and she (Radrat Safiyya: also fell down.He (the Holy Prophet) stood up and covered her. woman looked towards her and said: May Allah keep away the Jewess! He (the narrator) said: I said: Aba Hamza, did Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) really fall down? He said: Yes, by Allah, he in fact fell down.Anas said: I also saw the wedding feast of Zainab, and he (the Holy Prophet) served bread and meat to the people, and made them eat to their heart's content, and he (the Holy Prophet) sent me to call people, and as he was free (from the ceremony) he stood up and I followed him.Two persons were left and they were busy in talking and did not get out (of the apartment).He (the Holy Prophet) then proceeded towards (the apartments of) his wives.He greeted with as-Salamu 'alaikum to every one of them and said: Members of the household, how are you? They said: Messenger of Allah, we are in good state 'How do you find your family?He would say: In good state.When he was free from (this work of exchanging greetings) he came back, and I also came back along with him.And as he reached the door, (he found) that the two men were still busy in talking.And when they saw him having returned, they stood up and went out; and by Allah ! I do not know whether I had informed him, or there was a revelation to him (to the affect) that they had gone. He (the Holy Prophet) then came back and I also returned along with him, and as he put his step on the threshold of his door he hung a curtain between me and him, and (it was on this occasion) that Allah revealed this verse: ("O you who believe), do not enter the houses of the Prophet unless permission is given to 'you" (xxxiii. 53).
This hadith also says clearly that if she were to wear a veil, then she would be a freed woman, and married woman. Sheikh GF Haddad himself says:
1-The Prophet, upon him blessings and peace, made her wear hijab (contrary to the normal ruling for slaves). (Source)
Sam Shamoun's own source even admits that Mariyah (R) wore a veil,
845. That is, Mariyah was ordered to veil herself as did the Prophet's wives, BUT HE DID NOT MARRY HER . (Ibid., p. 194) (Quoting from History of Al-Tabari)
Yet then concludes that "HE DID NOT MARRY HER"??!! This is another reason to believe that Mariyah (R) was most likely a freed woman, and a Wife of the Holy Prophet (S).
It is reported that the graves for the Wives of the Holy Prophet (S) were at a place called Al-Baqi:
When the wall fell on them (i.e. graves) during the caliphate of Al-Walid bin 'Abdul Malik, the people started repairing it, and a foot appeared to them. The people got scared and thought that it was the foot of the Prophet. No-one could be found who could tell them about it till I ('Urwa) said to them, "By Allah, this is not the foot of the Prophet but it is the foot of Umar." Aisha narrated that she made a will to 'Abdullah bin Zubair, "Do not bury me with them (the Prophet and his two companions) but bury me with my companions (wives of the Prophet (p.b.u.h) ) in Al-Baqi as I would not like to be looked upon as better than I really am (by being buried near the Prophet)."
Yet, we also know that Mariyah (R) was also buried there, as Sheikh GF Haddad says:
5- Our liege-lords Abu Bakr and `Umar in their caliphates spent lavishly on her (in resemblance of the duty to support the Mothers of the believers) until she died in Muharram of the year 16. `Umar gathered the people himself, she was buried in al-Baqi`, and he prayed over her. Allah be well-pleased with her. (Source)
And, the scholars of Islamonline.net say:
After her death, `Umar ibn al-Khattab - the second caliph -led her funeral prayer and she was buried in al-Baqi, like many other companions and the rest of the wives of the prophet. Because she was the prophet's wife and the mother of his son Ibrahim, Caliph Mu`awiyah ibn abi-Sufyan exempted her hometown in Egypt from taxation, as a sign of honor. (Source)
The Holy Prophet (S) said, concerning slave woman who are of the People of the Book:
Abu Dharr reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: You would soon conquer Egypt and that is a land which is known (as the land of al-qirat). So when you conquer it, treat its inhabitants well. For there lies upon you the responsibility because of blood-tie or relationship of marriage (with them). And when you see two persons falling into dispute amongst themselves for the space of a brick, than get out of that. He (Abu Dharr) said: I saw Abd al-Rahman b. Shurahbil b. Hasana and his brother Rabi'a disputing with one another for the space of a brick. So I left that (land).
328. Abu Dharr reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "You will conquer a land in which the qirat will be mentioned."
In one variant, "You will conquer Egypt which is a land in which the qirat is used, so command its people to good. They have right to security and ties of kinship."
In one variant, "When you conquer it, be good to its people. They have right to security and ties of kinship," or he said, "right to security and ties of marriage."
The scholars say, "The ties of kinship come from the fact that Hajar, the mother of Isma'il, was one of them, and the ties of marriage come from the fact that Maria the mother of Ibrahim, the son of the Messenger of Allah, , may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was one of them."
(Source: Riyadh Us Saliheen 40. Chapter: On dutifulness to parents and maintaining ties of kinship)
"A passage has also been quoted from Az-zurqani, vol. iii where the Prophet declared Mary as from among the Ahl Bait (member of the Prophet's household) (Namus, p.82)."
"It is reported from 'Abdullah al-Zubairi who said: that after this the Noble Prophet married (tazawwaju) Mariah daughter of Sham'un. This is the same Mariyah who was sent by Maqauqis, the ruler of Alexandria to the Prophet as a gift" (Sahih al-Mustadarak Hakim Vol. iv, as quoted in Namus, p. 86).
Sheikh Muhammad Hisham Kabbani says:
"The muqawqis, or King of the Copts, gave the Prophet (S) two wives as a gift. The Prophet (S) married one, who became the mother of the Prophet's son Ibrahim, and he gave the other one to Hassan as a wife."
(Source: Encyclopedia of Islamic Doctrine: Remembrance of Allah and Praising the Prophet, p. 76 Vol. II, by Sheikh Muhammad Hisham Kabbani, As-Sunna Foundation of America)
On the same page, he adds a note regarding the above saying:
"Haythami said in Majma al-zawaid, "Tabarani in al-Aswat and al-Bazzar related it, and the narrators in al-Bazzar's chain are all scholar's of sound hadith".
(Source: Ibid, bold and underlined emphasis ours)
Let's even argue for arguments sake that Mariyah (R) was a slave. If this is the case, then she became an umm walad, and was freed. And the fact that she was even a slave woman, and she was possessed, it is amounted to marriage. Infact, this is the view that Maududi, the same scholar which Sam Shamoun quoted supports:
"The proper granting of the rights of possession by the State is just as legal an action as marriage. Therefore, a person who does not show the slightest aversion to marriage, there is no reasonable ground for him to show unnecessary aversion to living with a slave girl" (Tafhim-ul-Qur'an, Vol.1, under verse , p.340)
"He has, however, given fair chance to Maulana Maududi to present his case, who (Maududi) believes that when one becomes the owner of a slave girl, the mere fact of one's possessing her amounts to marriage with her-no formal matrimonial ceremony is needed at all."
The translator of Ibn Sa'd's Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir even writes:
"Handmaids gained the status of wedded wives if they bore children. They were called umm walad and became free."
(Source: Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir by Ibn Sa'd, translated by S. Moinul Haq p.152, Vol. I, Parts I&II)
Therefore, in addition, even the Scholars of Islam who hold the position Shamoun holds say that in some way Mariyah (R) was the Wife of the Holy Prophet (S), just because of the fact that he possessed her, it amounts to a marriage with no ceremony. And if not that, they will say that just for the fact that she bore the Holy Prophet (S) a child, her status was thus turned to that of a wedded wife, and became an umm walad.
Thus, after looking at the evidence for both claims, we ask the reader to reach his own conclusions. Now we proceed on to the part of the article where we shall refute the bizarre accusations against the morals of the Holy Prophet (S).
The High Morals of the Holy Prophet (S):
First, and foremost, Allah Almighty says clearly in the Holy Qur'an:
Ye have indeed in the Apostle of God a beautiful pattern (of conduct) for any one whose hope is in God and the Final Day, and who engages much in the Praise of God. (Sura 33 Ayat 21)
Yet, the haters and anti-Islamists will yell and rant, and throw the most disgusting insults on the Holy Prophet (S). Specifically in this case, they will say he had "sex-slaves", and that he only wished to have sex. Astaghfirullah! May Allah Almighty punish them in Hell for their insult against the Best amongst All of the Creation...Ameen!.
Aisha (R) herself even said, the same Aisha (R) who they claimed the Holy Prophet (S) "raped", says herself:
'A'isha (Allah be pleased with her) reported: Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) used to kiss (his wives) while fasting and embraced (them) while fasting; but he had the greatest mastery over his desire among you.
(On the authority of his father) 'Aisha said: "Whenever Allah's Apostle wanted to fondle anyone of us during her periods (menses), he used to order her to put on an Izar and start fondling her." 'Aisha added, "None of you could control his sexual desires as the Prophet could."
And, still, these people have the nerve to say Aisha (R) was "raped", yet it is Aisha (R) herself who says otherwise?? SubhanAllah! It is as if they know the Messenger of Allah (S) more then the people who lived with him!
Coming to the point, we will now argue and say that Mariyah (R) was never a "Wife" of the Holy Prophet (S), but a handmaid. How does this show the Holy Prophet (S) is bad is beyond us, as in the Bible it clearly says God Almighty gave the spoils to the Children of Israel:
10 When you march up to attack a city, make its people an offer of peace. 11 If they accept and open their gates, all the people in it shall be subject to forced labor and shall work for you. 12 If they refuse to make peace and they engage you in battle, lay siege to that city. 13 When the LORD your God delivers it into your hand, put to the sword all the men in it. 14 As for the women, the children, the livestock and everything else in the city, you may take these as plunder for yourselves. And you may use the plunder the LORD your God gives you from your enemies. 15 This is how you are to treat all the cities that are at a distance from you and do not belong to the nations nearby. (Deut. Chapter 20)
9And the children of Israel took ALL THE WOMEN of Midian captives, and their little ones, and took the spoil of all their cattle, and all their flocks, and all their goods. (Numbers Chapter 31 Verse 9)